Week 11: Gender, identity and community online

March 18th, 2008

This week’s readings comprise something of a hodgepodge. The themes are interrelated and certainly mutually informing, yet each on its own could be the focus of an entire class – an entire course, even. So little time. Yet, as always, I think these are important issues to include. Thus far in CMNS 455, weekly readings have really gelled with one another. This is the first time that the texts are disjointed thematically, and do not smoothly assimilate one to the other.

Judy Wajcman’s (2006) chapter, Virtual Gender (in Technofeminism), is solid, as one would expect, and grounds the week’s readings. She contextualizes, reviews and critiques cyberfeminism, which is found wanting in conclusion. Briefly, postfeminists have interpreted cyberspace as the final frontier where the virtual disembodiment offers freedom from gender-based inequality and oppression in the material world. Unlike outer space, cyberspace is somewhere most of us can visit. While cultivating human life on other planets remains light years away, cyberspace has been colonized at a breathtaking rate. As Wajman notes, “Rarely having made it into outer space, little wonder that feminists have seized upon new digital technologies for their potential to finally free women from the constraints of their sex” (57).

Cyberfeminists seized on the idea of cyberspace as a utopia. The notion of technological progress as central to salvation has been a persistent undertone in Western culture from late Middle Ages. As salvation became secularized, the digital realm revealed its utopian potential for a non-hierarchical democratic space, ripe for the realization global democracy at long last. In cyberspace, one can transcend the bounds of time, space and flesh. The modern divisions of race, class, ethnicity, gender and sex dissolve into bits.The original cyberoptimists, like Howard Rheingold, had high hopes the Internet would be a powerful force in breaking down barriers of prejudice and inequality.

Wajcman challenges the attendant notion of virtual community – a heady combination of technology, networks and freedom – as representing a new form of sociability and social interaction. Such “communities of choice” appear no less homogeneous or exclusive than the real world (RL) counterparts. She criticizes “cybergurus” like Negroponte and Castells – who attribute a technological and social revolution to the internet – for reviving a McLuhanist determinism. “The conservative overtones of these debates…betray a nostalgia for an idealized past when people belonged to a harmonious community” (p. 59), one that never really existed.

The optimism of the virtual community as heralding the “good society” is characteristic of cyberfeminism, which arose in reaction to negative feminist interpretations of technology during the 1980s. Rather than emphasizing the innately masculine and thus oppressive attributes of technology, cyberfeminism celebrates digital technologies as liberatory, agentic and subjective. The internet is the “ideal feminine medium”: distributed, non-linear, fluid, nodal, unpredictable. As such, the “digital revolution” marks the decline of “traditional hegemonic structures and power bases of male domination because it represents a new kind of technical system” (p. 64)

Cyberfeminism invokes a new relationship between woman and machine, one that inverts the stereotype of “woman” and valorizes women’s sexual difference, rather than uses it as a basis of subjugation. Digital technologies further enable gender-bending, and the challenging of rigid gender-based identities and roles. But Wajcman is critical of this idea of technology as freedom. She sees it as a “twist” on negative determinist interpretations of technology. “The political consequence of this avant-gardist celebration of the ‘new media’ is paradoxically to legitimate the existing order” (p. 73). If digital technology is inherently feminize, as some versions of cyberfeminism assert, no political action is required. Thus cyberfeminism is revealed as little more than a revisioning of radical or cultural feminism: essentializing women through positive affirmation of their sexual difference. “This belief in some inner essence of womanhood as an ahistorical category lies at the very heart of traditional and conservative conceptions of womanhood” (ibid).

According to Wajcman, cyberfeminism contains a tension between the utopian and the descriptive. Utopian thinking is useful in providing a critical perspective on current social relations. The force of utopian thought “derives precisely from being about a place that does not exist, in the light of which the present can be criticized” (p. 75). Cyberfeminism conflates the distinction between utopia as “no-where” versus “now-here”. Cyberfeminism flattens this distinction presenting the utopian image of cyberspace as a description of what currently exists. “If what is imagined is in the process of becoming, there is no need for politics to bring it into being” (ibid). In this way, technology substitutes for projects of progressive social change, and the value of utopian thinking is negated. As utopian thinking has been central to feminism, cyberfeminism must therefore be considered post-feminist

The next reading for this week is Julian Dibbell’s A Rape in Cyberspace. This is a strictly descriptive account of some peculiar events of a particular MOO. Specifically, it details how one avatar transgressed the unspoken norms of an online community, and how that community responded. I thought it would be helpful for understanding the construction and deconstruction of gender/identity in the digital realm. Further, as the subtitle – “How an Evil Clown, a Haitian Trickster Spirit, Two Wizards, and a Cast of Dozens Turned a Database Into a Society” – suggests, the article also deals with issues of online community formation.

The final reading is a chapter out of Rhiannon Bury’s 2005 book, Cyberspaces of their own: female fandoms online. I have to say I didn’t care much for this reading. Fist of all, I don’t think I selected the right chapter for this week’s theme. It didn’t read so well as a stand alone essay or chapter. It started out strong, contextualizing the formation of female-only online spaces with a genealogy of the forced containment of women in the private sphere throughout Western history. From there, the chapter unraveled into a piecemeal and confusing account of the case study (women-only list servs devoted to two TV shows). The notion of cyberspace as heterotopia (invoking Foucault, of course) is interesting but fruitless, as far as I can tell. What remains of the chapter is little more than a collection of extended quotations from list members, buffered by little commentary/analysis. Perhaps one needs to read the full book. At any rate, this reading is the first dud of the semester, which really isn’t too bad, all things considered.

I (heart) radio

March 11th, 2008

My old friend Trevor Klundert, from the alt weekly days, is the new host of an old show on CJAMfm, Windsor-Detroit campus community radio, every Monday night. He invited me to the Facebook group for Girlie So Groovy, and I’m listening to the MP3 of tonight’s show as I type. Trevor’s voice, tinged with a maturity, a slight roughness, that I suppose age has brought, is unfamiliar. Yet I am transported back in time. I see his blond head swing under the low furnace duct that bisected our basement office, back when Trevor was listings editor and we were churning out Windsor’s only alternative newsweekly, ROOM Magazine. Trevor was always a sight for sore eyes – ruddy cheeks, broad, knowing smile and the best outfits ever – usually some combo of bright orange, pink or red – often in stripes. He was a sly one – always taunting me with tales of hot upcoming dates…. with his grandma or some other female family member.

It also took me back to my days in the CJAM studio, back before they bought the new board, and things often didn’t work, for no apparent reason. The show, ROOM Radio, started off as a spoken word edition of the magazine. But it soon morphed into a music hour, with me playing whatever I felt like grabbing from my collection of review CDs, plus CJAM’s latest release shelf. It was fun. I really liked sitting in that darkened, shitty little room, all by myself at night, manning the board, the phones and the whole station, really – no one else was there. Today, with the shake-up at WDETfm, some of their luminaries, including Judy Adams and John Moshier, have moved over to CJAM, spiffing up its image no doubt. What a coup! And what good luck too.

Ever since I moved to Vancouver and started my PhD at SFU, I’ve thought about hosting a show again. I used to pass regularly by CJSFfm and feel a small pang, a hit of wistfulness. It’s funny, just the other day, I was talking to an old Windsor friend who also lives here now, and who used to host his own show on CJAM. He just got a spot for his new show on CJSF. It made me think about it all over again. And then Trevor reappeared on my radar with Girlie So Groovy. Weird. So I’m thinking about my own show again. I have the time – or I can make it. As a journalist, I always loved radio. The CJAM show was therapeutic. But when I started freelancing for CBC radio, it was a dream realized. I wouldn’t mind getting back together with radio. Not a bit.

Happy International Women’s Day

March 9th, 2008

Alright, I admit: it’s a bit of a mouthful. But IWD is an important day – a nice reminder that the women haven’t attained equality with men – in the West, never mind the nightmare that is the rest of the world. Despite the mainstream rhetoric that feminism is dead – and largely because it’s unnecessary – we still have glass ceilings, lack of gender parity in professions, differential pay, double labour burden (work/home), lack of universal childcare… it seems the list goes on. This is nothing to say of the sheer hatred and legalized abuse of women that is par for the course in many non-western nations. By comparison, we do “have it good.”

I didn’t do too much in honour of IWD – hung with my kids, went to my hip hop class and got some great tech help from a girl geek. But in their small way,  these activities are a testament to all the hard work and sacrifice of women who came before me. The choices available to me are also a testament. I can choose to have children, to go to school, to pursue paid work that fascinates and inspires me, to move about freely and independently in my community.

My one gesture for IWD is a humble one, before I sign off for the night: link love for some deserving ladies.

Feministing

Grepgrrl

GenderChangers

LinuxChix

I’m sure there are many more, but these are just a few that I know. Happy International Women’s Day to you.

When good physicists go postmodern

March 6th, 2008

This interesting tidbit came across one of my lists yesterday. Briefly, it is a spoof article by a physicist submitted – and published - in Social Text, a (then) non-peer-reviewed academic journal of cultural studies. Now, the joke is about 12 years old, but it’s new to me; I find it both hilarious and fascinating.

Hilarious because the perpetrator of the hoax – Alan D. Sokal – has a wicked sense of humour (who knew scientists could be funny?). I mean, the title alone is worth the entire gag: Transgressing the boundaries – Toward a transformative hermeneutics of quantum gravity. An excerpt:

“It has thus become increasingly apparent that physical ‘reality’, no less than social ‘reality’, is at bottom a social and linguistic construct; that scientific ‘knowledge’, far from being objective, reflects and encodes the dominant ideologies and power relations of the culture that produced it; that the truth claims of science are inherently theory-laden and self-referential; and consequently, that the discourse of the scientific community, for all its undeniable value, cannot assert a privileged epistemological status with respect to counter-hegemonic narratives emanating from dissident or marginalized communities.”

What a hoot! It reminds me of Rick Gruneau’s infamous quip about “theory that only dogs can hear.” But, funnily enough, everything but the first bit is stuff I’ve been grappling with lately, and stuff others – Thomas Kuhn, David Bloor and Sandra Harding come to mind – have convincingly written on without casting doubt on the existence of reality or the importance of science.

And fascinating for a couple reasons. First, because of the hypothesis Sokal was testing: namely, that the standards of intellectual rigor in certain precincts of the American academic humanities were on the decline. Second, because he misinterprets (or misunderstands) the very thing he is attempting to parody. Now that’s funny, no?

It’s true – and those of you who know me know this – I am no expert in cultural studies or postmodernism (or pomo, as I irreverently shorthand it). Indeed I was raised (in the academic sense) not by wolves but by professors who became wolf-like at the mere mention of postmodernism. So it is the case that I might not know what I’m talking about. Someone like Gary McCarron or Andrew Feenberg would be much better suited to the task, but I’m going to give it a shot nonetheless.

In an article about the whole sordid affair (submitted to though not published by Social Text), Sokal explains his motivation for writing the initial article, and goes on to highlight some of his more outrageous claims (whoppers, really), presented without supporting evidence or even logical argumentation. He really nails the pomo navelgazers – the type who only communicate through “discourses” and regard the world not as a tabula rasa or palette but as a text. The type for whom everything is a construct of one sort or another that nevertheless must be deconstructed. The type that make Foucault, Derrida and the rest of those cats roll over in their graves. I laughed out loud at the caricature.

Sokal peppers his article with scientific and mathematical concepts deployed “in ways that few scientists or mathematicians could possibly take seriously” drawing conclusions that were “pure invention.” And the editors and reviewers ate it up. Brilliant, as is his proposal that the “axiom of equality in mathematical set theory is somehow analogous to the homonymous concept in feminist politics.” According to Sokal, he wrote the thing so that “any competent physicist or mathematician (or undergraduate physics or math major)” would get the joke. But not the eds of Social Text, who apparently were fine with publishing an article on quantum physics without having it vetted by a scientist.

By his own admission, Sokal is at his most ridciulous in his conclusion:

“Having abolished reality as a constraint on science, I go on to suggest (once again without argument) that science, in order to be ‘liberatory’ must be subordinated to political strategies. I finish the article by observing that ‘a liberatory science cannot be complete without a profound revision of the canon of mathematics.’”

Outrageous. Sure. OK. But I think that Sokal does not land the powerful blow he aims to by ridiculing worthy projects, that are in many instances thoughtfully and solidly theorized, along with the clearly outlandish. I find that throughout, Sokal mixes his metaphors, borrowing when it suits him from modernism to describe its (so-called) successor. Dialectics, from what I know, is painfully Marxian and thus embarassingly modern. And the notion that science must be subordinated to a political agenda – not a pomo recommendation but a contemporary critical accusation. And last I checked, pomo theorists – at least the type Sokal lampoons – are not engaged in any project of societal change, rendering the quest for a “concrete tool of progressive political praxis” unnecessary. Indeed, praxis is a thoroughly modernist concept.

I take Sokal’s point – I do. The lack of rigour, the tendency of journal editors to indulge their particular theoretical predilections, well, these have long been suspected by academics in the social sciences. This is hardly shocking for a system (academic journal publishing) that relies on free labour (and in some cases charges authors to publish their work!!) and whose output has exploded in the last two decades. Some of the major corporate publishers have hundreds of titles on their rosters. They continue to jack subscription fees while quality plummets and libraries are forced to reduce their journal holdings. Give me a break.

But accepting Sokal’s point with humility does not mean accepting the undertone of his essay, which appears to me to be a defensive and unnuanced reaction to any and all critiques of scientific knowledge, and the discipline of science broadly construed. So when he writes in his parody about trying to highlight the “philosophical and political implications” in the theory of quantum gravity, we are meant – once in on the joke – to see this task as farcical, and not only the fictitious theory.

But, in fact, this is a very important task. If Sokal wants to cling to an antiquated and blind faith in a positivistic and value-free science, he is by all means welcome. And I can’t say for certain that is his position, because I haven’t read all the fallout literature on the subject, nor even browsed the intriguing but alarm-bell raising book titled A House Built on Sand: Exposing Postmodernist Myths About Science (featuring Sokal). But I think it is disingenuous to shroud what appears to be an ideological sortie in a lampoon of a critique he neither fully understands nor fairly addresses.

Week 9: Women in the Information Society

March 5th, 2008

I teach a 4th year seminar in the School of Communication at SFU entitled CMNS 455: Women and New Information Technology. The following is my synopsis on this week’s readings, grouped together under the vague title “Women in the Information Society.” I wish I’d been blogging the readings all along (as I did with my comprehensive exams) but this blog wasn’t up and running before the start of the semester, and then I sort of got busy, and forgot about it (!). Here goes…

In “Constructing the information society: Women, information technology and design,” Jane E. Fountain (2000) explores the underrepresentation of women in IT. This translates into a human resources shortage, and lowered productivity. Her main argument is that a stronger showing by women as experts, owners and designers of infotech would likely alter and broaden the range of technological apps, standards and practices, contributing to progressive social change.

In CMNS 455 we have encountered the (liberal feminist) idea that increasing the numbers of women in this or that field would help eliminate gender discrimination and bring about equality. Many feminist theorists are critical of this notion posed as a solution, insofar as informal barriers to equality still remain, such as “male culture” in the workplace and sexual division of labour. According to Fountain, however, implementation of IT within organizations has “eroded the importance of hierarchy and command-and-control authority systems that structured power…” (p. 47). She also asserts (somewhat problematically, I think) that the skills required in IT work require “a distinct set of organizational, communication and managerial skills, at which women tend to be proficient” (ibid). In the course readings thus far, we have seen how the “feminization” of labour has occurred by identifying and labeling certain “female qualities” that are required for certain jobs, and then devaluing them to reinforce the ghettoization of women in the paid labour force.

Fountain points out the higher ratio of women to men computer users (using stats for 1997) but portrays user influence as limited. “Designers fashion technology more deeply, pervasively and fundamentally” (p. 47). The “social possibilities” we encounter in ITs are in the main “products of ‘deep’ design, characteristics and properties not readily, or not at all, open to modification by users” (ibid). So much for a Feenbergian (or even constructivist) reading. So, for Fountain, technical design seems to be a black box: designers define the technological needs of users; they create the processes, design the codes, build the systems that structure Web use. In short: “designers affect society through technology in ways that users cannot” (p. 48). True, of course, but I don’t think it’s as stark as all that.

Juliet Webster (1995) begins her chapter entitled “Women in systems design – values, methods and artifacts” by stating that the definition of information technology systems has failed women in workplaces (p. 148). That is to say, there is a disconnect between the world of systems designers and that of women’s work: because women are not represented in the development process, their needs and concerns remain unmet. This is a familiar feminist-constructivist refrain.

But she complexifies Fountain’s liberal-feminist argument, which locates the problem with women themselves and offers simplistic equal opportunity solutions. Rather, Webster suggests that it is more than a numbers game – the problem is more serious than women’s numerical absences from all computing work but the most menial and mundane. The issue also goes beyond the conditions of computing work – long, anti-social hours that are often antithetical to women’s lives and their double burden of paid and (unpaid) domestic labour. And it is more still than a problem of “masculine culture” and values of IT firms.

In addition to all of this but most importantly for Webster, it is the very processes and methods that comprise the development of computer systems – carried out in isolation from the worker/user – that pose the biggest barrier. This is because, according to Webster, computer systems development follows a typically positivist and technicist bent, focalizing on tools – the “killer app” – and techniques, as well as the technical limits and potentials of the machine. Invoking Marcuse’s notion of technological rationality (without acknowledging it, I might add), she describes how information and data are privileged over relationships among people.

More problematic is the ignorance of power and gender issues, which is then projected to the work to be automated. “The failure of computer systems developers to address critically the organization of the work they confront means that they often simply replicate oppressive systems of work organization in automated form.” (p. 149). Computer users are excluded from the design process because they are not “experts” – thought they possess knowledge of the work that the designers could not possibly have. The inherent gender-blindness of the innovation process means women remain objects – voiceless and invisible – rather than empowered subjects. Women also remain the point of origin for the problem, an approach that fails to problematize tech work and refuses to account for power relations.

Indeed, Webster points out that the gendered division of the computing industry is becoming more deeply entrenched, despite liberal feminist “awareness” campaigns and other “solutions.” Women are all too aware, it seems, of the high personal costs: hostile work environment, strained relationships with friends and family, identity challenges. Some feminists have attempted to move beyond the simple equal opportunity formulations, subverting gender relations by placing “women at the centre of development projects, both as the subjects of these projects and as the agents of strategic intervention, with the purpose of creating ‘woman-friendly’ or ‘woman-centred’ technologies” (p. 152).

Webster’s query of whether women technologists have different values that result in different technical artifacts is an intriguing one. Do women bring specifically “female” qualities and values to the process of IT development and do these translate into devices and systems with obviously feminine attributes? The scant literature on the subject seems to indicate that women have “caring values”, a less competitive way of interacting with others, and a greater concern for users and social context of technology. Women in IT are identified as having the interpersonal skills that “are learnt through an apprenticeship in womanhood and which are undervalued because they are possessed by women, deriving from and contributing to their subordination” (p. 161).

Some feminist research acknowledges and celebrates these personal competences that arise out of women’s subordination. Webster cautions that this can be progressive as well as problematic. Progressive because it aims to reverse dominant assumptions about these skills and thus women’s value. Problematic in that it dabbles in essentialism, affirming women’s role as caregivers and supporters. “As long as women continue to be identified with such attributes, even if these are recognized to be the products of socialization, then the attributes will be regarded as unimportant precisely because they are held by women, who are regarded as unimportant” (p. 162). One recommendation is to associate the gender qualities of certain types of work with the labour process itself, rather than with the women who perform it so as to prevent women from being denied skill recognition (p.168). Webster further acknowledges that it is difficult to translate values of any type directly into technology, let alone its design. The most she can say is that female computer scientists might chose different problems and develop different methods.

Webster veers into critical constructivist territory in her discussion of users “interpreting” technology, with the result that “the design process is only fully completed when the computer system is implemented and used” (p. 165). She calls this a “radical reconcpetualization” of computer systems development, one that considers the implementation process as innovative, and that values the “local expertise of users. If women’s “local knowledge” were to be redefined as authorativative, it could then inform the development of computer systems. She invokes Suchman’s (1994) term “artful integrations” of design and use during the implementation process, which is none other than Feenberg’s (1999) “creative appropriation”. Articulating and integrating into systems design the obscured and devalued knowledge and experience of women at work is a key aspect of feminist methods of tech dev. The tool designer thus begins with the work of the user. A radical concept (goddess forbid)!

Tam and Bassett Jr. examine and consider the reasons for the IT gender divide in their chapter in the edited collection, Removing barriers: Women in academic science, technology, engineering and mathematics (Bystydzienski & Bird, 2006). They note that while the gender gap in internet usage has been closing, the gender gap in education – women majoring in computer-related fields – has not. The authors contend that the “gender gap in educational achievement and employment opportunities puts women at a distinct disadvantage in a society that values computer technology” (110). You think?

While Tam and Bassett Jr. seek to understand the nature and causes of this phenomenon (or say they do), little analysis (but much number crunching) is evident). From a large study conducted using statistics from the University of Illinois-Chicago, they demonstrate that math performance is a significant predictor for becoming an IT major – but less so for female students. They also show that the technology gender gap is not due to differences in math performance, because while the math performance gender gap is shrinking, the IT gender gap continues to widen. the authors then consider other factors that influence the choice of university major and occupation, including: negative experience in computer science classes in grad school; less hands-on experience with technology before collage; women’s doubt of their math ability; girls’ perception of computers as “boy stuff”; and finally, lack of role models and the few female IT teachers.

In order to reduce the technology gender gap, the authors say what is needed is a change in societal and parental expectations, plus a concerted effort to encourage women’s participation in technology education. Again, these are the simplistic suggestions we’ve seen posited in liberal feminist accounts. They offer no concrete strategies for achieving these goals, nor any in depth analyses for understanding why the situation has occurred. Really, this chapter is little more than reassertions of the obvious, backed up but not illuminated by statistics. But for those who want empirical “proof” as to the lack of gender equality in our society, Tam and Bassett’s offering is important.

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